Medicaid — Health Insurance for The Poor


For the unknowing, Medicaid is an “entitlement program” that provides health care for people with low incomes, limited resources, or certain disabilities.

The concept of Medicaid came about so that the government could provide assistance to financially-strapped families to help them pay of a portion of their medical bills.

It is often described as a “means-tested” program — where applicants are screened for their eligibility and because it is an entitlement program, everyone who is eligible has a right to enroll in Medicaid coverage.

For many poor and low-income children and families — the group who are least likely to be insured, Medicaid is the only available source of free health insurance coverage.


Understanding Medicaid


Medicaid is essentially a state as well as federal scheme, wherein states and federal government jointly fund it, while the state authorities manage it. Its primary goal is to assist low income families to pay their medical bills.

This scheme was introduced in the year 1995 and since then, it has been helping the poor get medical benefits that they wouldn’t have been able to afford without it.

Each state operates its own Medicaid program within federal guidelines — each with a different income level required to qualify for the same, higher in some and lower in others.


Medicaid Eligibility


The Affordable Care Act (widely known as “Obamacare”) creates a national minimum eligibility standard of 133% of the federal poverty level (FPL), but some states choose not to adopt the Medicaid expansion under the ACA.

Before the ACA, Medicaid served only children, parents, pregnant women, people with disabilities and seniors; it’s now available to any adult, between the ages of 19 and 65, with income below the predetermined threshold.

However, among the 19 states not currently expanding Medicaid, the average eligibility threshold remains low at 44% or about $9000 for a single mother of two, with only three (2) states — Maine, Tennessee, and Wisconsin covering parents with incomes at or near poverty.


If your state is expanding Medicaid, you’ll probably qualify for Medicaid coverage, if your income is below $27,000 for a family of three. See this chart for income limits for different family sizes.


If your state hasn’t expanded Medicaid, you may be eligible for subsidies to buy a private health insurance plan in the Marketplace, if your income is between 100% – 400% of the federal poverty line, that’s an income between $20,420 and $81,680 for a family of three.1


One of those subsidies for those who buy insurance through Marketplace is the Advance Premium Tax Credit which can be applied directly to your premium — the amount you pay each month to your insurance plan.

How does the premium tax credit work?

When you apply for coverage in the Health Insurance Marketplace, the Marketplace will estimate the amount of the premium tax credit that you may be eligible, based on your income.

Based upon that estimate, you can decide if you want to have all, some, or none of your estimated credit paid in advance directly to your insurance company to lower your monthly premiums.

If you do not opt for advance credit payments, you may be eligible to claim the credit when you file your taxes for the year, which will lower the amount of taxes owed on that return.


How Do I Apply for Medicaid?


Regardless of whether or not your state has expanded Medicaid, you should apply for coverage to see if you qualify. If you choose not to buy, there’ll be a fee for not having health insurance.2

Either way, everyone is required by law to have minimum health insurance coverage or else pay a tax penalty — the greater of $695 per adult (or $347.50 per child under 18) or 2.5% of your income.

To find out if you and your family qualify for Medicaid, CHIP, or a private insurance plan with a single application, create an account online at HealthCare.gov — the official health insurance marketplace.3


How the Marketplace Works?


1. APPLY

First, you’ll provide some information about you and your family, including your income, household size, and more.


2. PICK A PLAN

Next you’ll see all the plans and programs you’re eligible for and compare them side-by-side. You’ll also find out if you can get lower costs on monthly premiums and out-of-pocket costs.


3. ENROLL

Choose the plan that meets your needs and enroll. Coverage starts as soon as January 1st the following year.
The last day to enroll in 2018 coverage is January 31, 2018.4


You can also call 24/7 Marketplace helpline at 1-800-318-2596 for specific information about enrolling in Medicaid, eligibility, coverage and services for your state.


The Affordable Care Act has indeed made health insurance more affordable and accessible for millions of uninsured Americans across the country, including 7 million women who were previously without health care coverage.5

Additionally, by expanding Medicaid to low-income parents, particularly single mothers, states can ensure that their children are receiving the health care services they need, such as well-child visits and preventive services.


  1. What is the income limit for health insurance subsidy?
  2. HealthCare.gov, The fee for not having health insurance.
  3. The Spanish-language portal to the federally run exchanges is CuidadoDeSalud.gov
  4. Important Medicaid Enrollment Dateline
  5. Source: NLWC, What the Medicaid Eligibility Expansion Means for Women